Kenneth Wuest: Imputed, Reckoned, Counted, Accounted

From Studies In The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.

“Imputed, reckoned, counted, accounted are translations of the Greek word logizomai. The word in the classics meant “to count, reckon, calculate, compute, to set to one’s account.” We will study its use in Gal. 3:6 as an illustration of its use in other passages. The word is used in the papyri as a business term:for instance, “put to one’s account; let my revenues be placed on deposit at the store-house; reckoning the wine to him at 16 drachmae the monochore; a single artabae being reckoned at 180 myriads of denari; I now give orders generally with regard to all payments actually made or credited to the government.” (emphasis in the original throughout)
Thus Abraham believed God, and his act of faith was placed to his account in value as righteousness. He believed God and his act of faith was placed on deposit for him and evaluated as righteousness. He believed God and his act of faith was computed as to its value, and there was placed to his account, righteousness. He believed God, and his act of faith was credited to his account for righteousness. Finally, he believed God, and his act of faith was credited to him, resulting in righteousness.
All this does not mean, however, that Abraham’s act of faith was looked upon as a meritorious action deserving of reward. It was not viewed as a good work by God and rewarded by the bestowal of righteousness. That would be salvation by works. But the fact that Abraham cast off all dependence upon good works as a means of finding acceptance with God, and accepted God’s way of bestowing salvation, was answered by God in giving him that salvation. Abraham simply put himself in the place where a righteous God could offer him salvation upon the basis of justice satisfied, and in pure grace. God therefore put righteousness to his account. He evaluated Abraham’s act of faith as that which made it possible for Him to give him salvation.
The word logizomai is translated “imputed” in Rom. 4:6, 8, 11, 22, 23, 24; II Cor. 5:19; Jas. 2:23. In Rom. 4:8, the man is called blessed, to whose account no sin is charged. At the Cross, his sin was charged to the account of the Lord Jesus. In Rom. 4:6, the man to whose account righteousness is put, is called blessed. This is imputation, the act of putting something to someone’s account. In the case of the Lord Jesus, the sin of the human race was charged to Him. In the case of the believing sinner, the righteousness of God, Christ Jesus Himself, is put to his account.
It is translated “counted” or “accounted” in the following scriptures; Rom. 2:26, 4:3, 5; Gal. 3:6. In Rom. 2:26 we have, “Shall not his uncircumcision be put to his account for circumcision?”
The scripture where “reckoned” is used is Rom. 4:9, 10. In II Tim. 4:16 we have an excellent illustration of the use of logizomai in the words, “I pray God that it may not be laid to their charge.” The above treatment of logizomai is chiefly confined to its use in connection with the substitutionary atonement for sin. There are other uses which are not covered by the foregoing work.”

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Grace Community Church (San Antonio, Texas), James Jennings: What Is That To You? You Follow Me (John 21:21-22)

21 When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, “Lord, what about this man?” 22 Jesus said to him, “If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you? You follow me!”

Grace Community Church (San Antonio, Texas) November 15, 2014 – Tim Conway: Men’s Systematic Theology Study #5

Using Robert Reymond’s “A New Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith” as the supplementary textbook after the primary text, the Holy Scriptures.  Please check the GCC Livestream channel for future classes’ streaming availability.

Today’s class: Chapter Three, Part 1.

David Wells: That Which Applies To God Is Also Identified With Christ

“If Yahweh is our sanctifier (Ex. 31:13), is omnipresent (Ps. 139:7–10), is our peace (Judg. 6:24), is our righteousness (Jer. 23:6), is our victory (Ex. 17:8–16), and is our healer (Ex. 15:26), then so is Christ all of these things (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 1:27; Eph. 2:14). If the gospel is God’s (1 Thess. 2:2, 6–9; Gal. 3:8), then that same gospel is also Christ’s (1 Thess. 3:2; Gal. 1:7). If the church is God’s (Gal. 1:13; 1 Cor. 15:9), then that same church is also Christ’s (Rom 16:16). God’s Kingdom (1 Thess. 2:12) is Christ’s (Eph. 5:5); God’s love (Eph. 1:3–5) is Christ’s (Rom. 8:35); God’s Word (Col. 1:25; 1 Thess. 2:13) is Christ’s (1 Thess. 1:8; 4:15); God’s Spirit (1 Thess. 4:8) is Christ’s (Phil. 1:19); God’s peace (Gal. 5:22; Phil. 4:9) is Christ’s (Col. 3:15; see Col. 1:2; Phil. 1:2; 4:7); God’s “Day” of judgment (Isa. 13:6) is Christ’s “Day” of judgment (Phil. 1:6, 10; 2:16; 1 Cor. 1:8); God’s grace (Eph. 2:8, 9; Col. 1:6; Gal. 1:15) is Christ’s grace (1 Thess. 5:28; Gal. 1:6; 6:18); God’s salvation (Col. 1:13) is Christ’s salvation (1 Thess. 1:10); and God’s will (Eph. 1:11; 1 Thess. 4:3; Gal. 1:4) is Christ’s will (Eph. 5:17; see 1 Thess. 5:18). So it is no surprise to hear Paul say that he is both God’s slave (Rom. 1:9) and Christ’s (Rom. 1:1; Gal. 1:10), that he lives for that glory which is both God’s (Rom 5:2; Gal. 1:24) and Christ’s (2 Cor. 8:19, 23; see 2 Cor. 4:6), that his faith is in God (1 Thess. 1:8, 9; Rom. 4:1–5) and in Christ Jesus (Gal. 3:22), and that to know God, which is salvation (Gal. 4:8; 1 Thess. 4:5), is to know Christ (2 Cor. 4:6).”[19]

Reymond, R. L. (2003). Jesus, Divine Messiah: The New and Old Testament Witness (p. 430). Fearn, UK: Christian Focus Publications.

[19]David F. Wells, The Person of Christ (Westchester, Illinois: Crossway, 1984), 64–5.

William Hendriksen: Justification And Sanctification – Distinct, But Never Separate

“Justification is that act of God the Father whereby he counts our sins to be Christ’s and Christ’s righteousness to be ours (2 Cor. 5: 21). It is the opposite of condemnation (Rom. 8: 33 , 34). It implies deliverance from the curse of God because that curse was placed on Christ (Gal. 3: 11–13). It means forgiveness full and free (Rom. 4: 6– 8). It is God’s free gift, the fruit of sovereign grace, and not in any way the result of human “goodness” or “accomplishment” (Rom 3: 24; 5: 5, 8, 9). It brings peace to the soul (Rom. 5: 1), a peace that passes all understanding. It fills the heart with such thanksgiving that it produces in the life of the believer a rich harvest of good works. Hence, justification and sanctification, though ever distinct, are never separate but stand in the closest possible relation to each other (Rom. 6: 2; 8: 1, 2). [19]” (emphasis in the original)

White, James R. (2007-05-01). God Who Justifies, The (pp. 75-76). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

[19] William Hendriksen, 1 & 2 Timothy & Titus (Baker, 1989), 393.

White, James R. (2007-05-01). God Who Justifies, The (p. 76). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

William Hendriksen: The Differences Between Justification And Sanctification

“Justification is a matter of imputation (reckoning, charging): the sinner’s guilt is imputed to Christ; the latter’s righteousness is imputed to the sinner (Gen. 15: 6; Ps. 32: 1; Isa. 53: 4– 6; Jer. 23: 6; Rom. 5: 18, 19). Sanctification is a matter of transformation (2 Cor. 3: 17, 18). In justification the Father takes the lead (Rom. 8: 33); in sanctification the Holy Spirit does (2 Thess. 2: 13). The first is a “once for all” verdict, the second a life-long process. Nevertheless, although the two should never be identified, neither should they be separated . They are distinct but not separate. In justifying the sinner, God may be viewed as the Judge who presides over a law court. The prisoner is standing in the dock . The Judge acquits the prisoner, pronouncing him “not guilty but righteous.” The former prisoner is now a free man. But the story does not end here. The Judge now turns to that free man and adopts him as his son, and even imparts his own Spirit to him (Rom. 8: 15; Gal. 4: 5, 6). Here justification and sanctification touch each other, as it were; for, out of gratitude, this justified person, through the enabling power of the Spirit, begins to fight against his sins and to abound in good works to the glory of his Judge-Father. Good works never justify anyone, but no truly justified person wants to be without them (Eph. 2: 8– 10). [17]

White, James R. (2007-05-01). God Who Justifies, The (pp. 74-75). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

[17] William Hendriksen, Galatians (Baker, 1989), 98.

Louis Berkhof: The Differences Between Justification And Sanctification

“1. Justification removes the guilt of sin and restores the sinner to all the filial rights involved in his state as a child of God, including an eternal inheritance. Sanctification removes the pollution of sin and renews the sinner ever-increasingly in conformity with the image of God.

2. Justification takes place outside the sinner in the tribunal of God, and does not change his inner life, though the sentence is brought home to him subjectively. Sanctification, on the other hand, takes place in the inner life of man and gradually affects his whole being.

3. Justification takes place once for all. It is not repeated, neither is it a process; it is complete at once and for all time. There is no more or less in justification; man is either fully justified, or he is not justified at all. In distinction from it sanctification is a continuous process, which is never completed in this life.

4. While the meritorious cause of both lies in the merits of Christ, there is a difference in the efficient cause. Speaking economically, God the Father declares the sinner righteous, and God the Holy Spirit sanctifies him. [16]”

White, James R. (2007-05-01). God Who Justifies, The (p. 74). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

[16] Systematic Theology (Eerdmans, 1982), 513-514